Acne is a skin disease that affects people of all ages. Acne can occur for many reasons including hormonal, dietary and hereditary factors. Acne causes red, inflamed bumps on the skin most commonly on the face, chest and back. It can appear as different types of bumps such as comedomes (blackheads and whiteheads), pustules, nodules or cysts. These bumps are usually caused by increased oil production in the skin, dead skin cells blocking the skin follicles and bacteria entering the follicles causing infection and inflammation. Treatment can include topical antibiotics, skin care products, Microdermabrasion, Hydrafacial, Photonlight, Salycylic peels, the oral contraceptive pill and dietary changes.
‘Age spots’ is actually a misnomer. These pigmented spots don’t occur because of age but do occur as we age because of chronic sun exposure. ‘Age spots’ are mostly brown, but occasionally white in appearance and are usually benign. They can usually be treated with topical creams, sunscreen and Broadband light or laser.
Alopecia literally means hair loss. It can affect any part of the body but can be localised to one area. Alopecia can be due to hereditary factors, drugs, or due to hair thinning, shedding or poor quality hair and is sometimes caused by diseases such as Iron deficiency anaemia. Alopecia can sometimes be treated with steroid injections to the affected area.
Actinic Keratosis (plural keratosis), also known as Solar keratosis, is a precancerous scaly red spot found most often on the face, neck or backs of hands. It is often caused by chronic sun exposure and can be treated with topical creams, photodynamic therapy or cryotherapy.
Alpha Hydroxy Acids (AHAs)
Alpha Hydroxy Acids, more commonly known as AHA’s are Fruit acids which are used to rejuvenate the skin by helping the skin to shed old or damaged skin cells. These are most commonly used in skin care products such as creams or peels and sometimes cause some gentle peeling of the skin. The most common AHA’s in skincare products are Glycolic and Lactic acids.
Angioma, also known as Haemangioma is a collection of blood vessels in the skin that forms a flat or raised red mark or lump on the skin. It is a benign lesion that can be treated with Broadband light or laser.
Anti-wrinkle injections, also known as Muscle Relaxants, are a purified muscle relaxant derived from bacteria and are used to temporarily reduce or soften wrinkles in the skin. They are often used around the eyes (crows feet), between the eyebrows, on the forehead or to soften the lines at the corners of the mouth or to relax ageing muscle bands in the neck. Muscle Relaxants have many other therapeutic uses other than these well known cosmetic ones. Their other common uses include treatments for hyperhydrosis (excessive sweating), chronic migraine, cerebral palsy, muscle spasticity, blepharospasm and dystonia. Muscle Relaxants last approximately 3 – 4 months depending on the size and strength of the muscle and the dose injected.
Athletes Foot is also known as Tinea. It is a scaly red fungal infection of the skin of the foot that appears most commonly between the toes in humid conditions. Athletes Foot can usually be treated with an antifungal cream or gel.
Basal Cell Carcinoma (BCC)
Basal Cell Carcinoma or BCC, is a non-melanoma skin cancer that is caused by sun exposure. It does not usually spread to other parts of the body such as the blood or lymph nodes. It is often a slow growing skin cancer that can appear as flat and scaly or as a lump. The treatment of a BCC depends on its type. If superficial they can often be treated without surgery. Typical non-surgical treatments include topical creams or Photodynamic Therapy.
Benign lesions are lesions that are non-cancerous and do not tend to spread to other parts of the skin or body. Examples include seborrhoiec warts, sebaceous hyperplasiae, skin tags, epidermoid cysts, corns and calluses.
Beta Hydroxy Acids (BHAs)
Beta Hydroxy Acids are more commonly known as BHA’s. The most common BHA is Salicyclic acid, which is often used to treat skin conditions like acne, age lines, skin texture or wrinkles. BHA’s help unblock the pores and are often used in skin care products or facial peels to accelerate the shedding of old skin cells and to stimulate skin renewal.
Birthmarks are actually not always present at birth but can develop during the first year of life. They can appear as a red, purple, brown or skin coloured spot. Common birthmarks are lesions like Port Wine Stains, Haemangiomas, Café au Lait spots, Moles or a Becker’s Naevus. Depending on the type of mark it could potentially be treated with Broad Band Light, laser or surgery.
Blackheads are open comedomes. These are pores in the skin which are blocked with dead skin cells that have oxidized and been stained with melanin (not dirt) from the surrounding skin cells, causing the black appearance of the spot. Blackheads can be treated with topical skin care products, Microdermabrasion, Hydrafacial and other skin treatments such as chemical peels.
Bleaching cream is prescribed by a doctor and contains various ingredients such as Hydroquinone, Vitamin C, Kojic acid, and Vitamin A in a steroid cream base and is usually made by a compounding pharmacist. Bleaching cream is often used to help reduce the activity of melanocytes (melanin producing cells) in the skin and therefore reduce skin pigmentation. Bleaching cream may have some side effects, which can include redness, dryness, peeling and increased sun sensitivity.
Bowen’s Disease, also known as Intraepithelial carcinoma, is an early version of Squamous Cell Carcinoma that has not yet become invasive. Bowen’s Disease can usually be effectively treated with topical prescription creams, Photodynamic therapy or surgery.
Bunny Lines occur on both sides of the upper nose when the Nasalis muscle contracts or the nose is scrunched up like a bunny sniffing. These lines can be easily treated with Muscle Relaxants or Anti-wrinkle Injections.
Campbell de Morgan spots
Campbell de Morgan spots, also known as Cherry Angiomas, are vascular lesions that appear as red or purple lumps on the skin, usually on the face or upper body. These lesions are often hereditary and are of a benign nature. A Campbell de Morgan spot is a group of blood vessels that can be treated very successfully with Broadband light or laser. It usually needs more than one treatment to completely remove the lesion.
Capillaries are tiny blood vessels that are visible on the surface of the skin. If they are very tiny they may appear as redness in the skin or Rosacea. Capillaries can be treated very easily with Broadband light or laser.
Cellulite is a dimpling or lumpiness on the surface of the skin and most commonly appears on the thighs and buttocks. It is caused by projections of fat from the area just below the skin (subcutaneous area) into the deeper layer of the skin (dermis) causing the dimples. It can occur even in people who have no excess fat.
Cellulitis is a skin disease that causes an area of red, swollen, painful skin due to bacterial Infection. It affects the epidermis (surface of the skin, dermis (deeper layer of the skin) and the area just below this called the subcutaneous tissue. Cellulitis is usually treated with antibiotics.
A Chemical Peel is a type of skin treatment where fruit acids such as AHA, BHA or Trichloracetic Acids (TCA) are painted onto the skin, causing a chemical exfoliation of the skin. This type of treatment assists in blood circulation and skin renewal. It is good for treating skin conditions like acne, pigmentation, fine lines and wrinkles, and uneven skin tone.
Cherry Angiomas, also known as Campbell de Morgan spots, are vascular lesions that appear as red or purple lumps on the skin, usually on the face or trunk. These lesions are often hereditary and are of a benign nature. A Cherry Angioma is a group of blood vessels that can be treated very successfully with Broadband light or laser. They sometimes need more than one treatment to completely remove the lesion.
Chloasma, also known as Melasma is a skin condition where pigmentation in the skin is induced through hormonal and environmental factors such as the sun. Some people have a hereditary tendency to develop chloasma and it can be made worse by sun exposure, certain drugs, the Oral contraceptive pill, pregnancy and other hormonal changes. Chloasma is treated most commonly with topical creams and sunscreen and can be made temporarily worse by some laser treatments.
A Comedome can appear in two forms, as a Blackhead or whitehead. It is a type of acne lesion, which occurs when a hair follicle opening in the skin is blocked by dead skin cells. A Comedome is a pimple waiting to emerge. It is the initial lesion doctors aim to treat in order to stop the acne cycle. Comedomes can be treated in a number of ways including topical creams, Microdermabrasion, Chemical peels and Light therapy such as Photonlight.
Conjunctivitis is an infection of the lining of the eye causing redness and discharge from the eye. It can be treated with topical antibiotic ointment or drops.
‘Crow’s Feet’ is a term used to describe the lines in the skin at the sides of the eyes. Contraction of the muscles around the eyes that activate when smiling cause these lines. They are most commonly treated with muscles relaxants but other possible treatments can include eye creams, dermal filler, Broad Band light, laser, dermal needling or radiofrequency skin tightening.
Cryotherapy is the use of liquid nitrogen to ‘freeze’ precancerous skin lesions such as actinic keratoses, solar keratoses or warts. The liquid is sprayed onto the lesion for a few seconds and this may need to be repeated. The treated area is likely to blister within a few hours and often forms a scab within a few days. Lesions treated with liquid nitrogen usually take a week to heal on the face and up to 3 weeks on the body. Healing can be helped by the use of a certain topical gels or ointments.
A cyst is a round half spherical shaped lesion, which often distends the skin and contains fluid or other material. A capsule usually surrounds it, except in the case of a pseudocyst. The most common type of cysts are epidermoid cysts (used to be known as sebaceous cysts), dermoid cysts and pseudocysts.
Cystic Acne is the most serious form of acne and presents with tender inflammed lumps and deep-seated pustules on the skin, which often leave scars. It is the most stubborn form of Acne. Treatment can include topical antibiotics, skin care products, Microdermabrasion, Hydrafacial, Photonlight, Salycylic peels, the oral contraceptive pill and dietary changes. In severe cases when these treatments are not enough, oral high strength Vitamin A can be discussed as a treatment option.
Dandruff is a mild form of Seborrhoiec dermatitis, which specifically affects the scalp. Dandruff can be treated effectively most of the time with anti-dandruff or anti-fungal shampoos.
Decolletage is a term that refers to the area exposed by a low neckline. This includes the neck, chest and shoulders of the upper torso.
Dermal papules are slightly raised lesions on the skin that arise in the deeper layer of skin (dermis). Dermal papules can be benign or malignant.
The Dermis is the name given to the deeper layer of the skin below the more superficial epidermis or surface of the skin.
Demodex is the name given to tiny mites that live in the hair follicle. In humans, demodex is found on facial skin especially the forehead, cheeks, sides of the nose, eyelashes and external ear canals. It sometimes causes a condition called demodicosis. Demodex mites tend to colonise the skin of patients with rosacea or seborrhoiec dermatitis. Demodex mites often appear as follicular scales, redness, sensitive skin and itchiness. Creams and shampoos with Tea tree oil in them are often used to treat Demodex mites and other treatments for rosacea and seborrhoiec dermatitis will reduce the number of these mites.
Dermatitis literally means Inflammation of the skin. It usually presents as redness, itchiness, stinging, tenderness and dry/scaly or cracked skin. The most common types are eczema, contact dermatitis and facial perioral dermatitis.
Dermatofibroma is a benign, painless but firm skin lump which is caused usually by an ingrown hair, pimple or insect bite leading to multiplication of the cells in the dermis. It can occur most commonly on the legs or arms and can be left as they are or excised if they are a cosmetic concern.
Dermoid cysts are non-cancerous tumours that may occur anywhere in the body. When they affect the skin these cysts are made up of skin cells, hair follicles, and sweat glands. Dermoid cysts in the skin occur mostly on the face (outer eyebrow, eyelid, upper nose), neck, or scalp. They are usually firm dough-like lumps that range in size from 0.5 to 6 cm in diameter. They can be treated by surgical excision if they are causing an issue or are a cosmetic concern.
Dermatoscopy, also known as Dermoscopy is the use of a special hand held microscope by a trained skin cancer doctor to help with the microscopic diagnosis of skin cancer or other lesions.
Dermatoscope is a hand held microscope that is used to help in the diagnosis of skin cancer and other skin lesions.
Dermoscopy, also known as Dermatoscopy is the use of a special hand held microscope by a trained skin cancer doctor to help with the microscopic diagnosis of skin cancer or other lesions.
Dysplastic Naevus, also known as atypical naevi are moles or melanocytic naevi with unusual features. They may resemble malignant melanoma (cancerous mole), but are actually harmless. The term atypical naevus is sometimes used to mean any funny-looking mole. However, strictly speaking, an atypical naevus is defined as a mole with at least 3 of the following features:
- Size is greater than 5 mm diameter
- Ill-defined or blurred borders
- Irregular margin resulting in an unusual shape
- Varying shades of colour (mostly pink, tan, brown, black)
- Flat and bumpy components
Eczema is a form of dermatitis. Acute eczema (or dermatitis) refers to a rapidly evolving red scaly rash, which may be blistered and swollen. Chronic eczema (or dermatitis) refers to a longstanding irritable area. It is often darker than the surrounding skin, thickened and can be very itchy.
Enlarged pores are depressions in the facial skin surface that contain one or more openings to the ducts carrying sweat and oil from their respective glands. Pores can often appear larger with age.
An Epidermal cyst is a cyst arising in the epidermis or outer layer of the skin.
Epidermal naevi are raised brown marks that often look a little like moles but usually appear in a line on body parts below the neck. It is common for them to continue to grow with age but there is usually no need for concern.
The Epidermis is the outer or surface layer of skin.
Epidermoid cysts (used to be known a sebaceous cysts) occur usually in adults and more commonly in men. They can occur on the face, neck or body and consist of a skin coloured, dome shaped lesion that may have a hole in the top. Often a cheese like substance that is made of keratin or dead skin cells can be expressed from it and usually smells like “dirty socks”. They can be left alone, excised or incised and expressed. They can occasionally become infected and become red tender and swollen, in which case they may need to be treated with antibiotics and surgery.
Excision refers to the surgical removal of a skin lesion by cutting it out of the body. This is always done using a numbing agent or under local anasethetic. After removal the area may need to be sutured or stitched depending on the depth of the wound. If sutures are used they may need to be removed at a later date.
Fibromatosis is a condition where fibrous overgrowths of dermal and subcutaneous connective tissue develop tumours called fibromas. These fibromas are usually benign.
A skin flap is a type of wound closure. A local skin flap consists of skin taken from an adjacent area and moved to fill the area created by the removal of a skin lesion such as a skin cancer. Flaps differ from skin grafts in that a flap is transferred with an intact blood supply and remains connected to its origin, while a graft is a transfer of tissue which has been completely removed from its origin and therefore relies entirely on the recipient site for its blood supply.
Folliculitis is an inflammation or infection of the hair follicles in the skin causing small raised or flat red lumps or pustules.
Freckles are small flat brown marks arising on the face and other sun exposed areas. They are most often seen in fair skinned people, especially those with red hair, but they are an inherited characteristic that sometimes affects darker skin types as well.
Fungal Nail Infection
A fungal nail infection causes discolouration and unsightly changes to the nail. It can affect finger or toenail and can cause the nail to lift, weaken or crumble if not treated. Common fungal nail infections include Tinea and Candida.
A ganglion cyst is a fluid-filled benign lump that usually develops in the wrist or hand but can occur in the ankle occasionally too. It can cause pain or restricted movement if it occurs over a nerve or joint. They can be removed by surgical excision if causing pain, numbness, tingling or restriction in movement.
The term ‘Glabella’ refers to the area between the eyebrows where there are often vertical lines. These lines usually appear when we frown. These can be reduced with muscle relaxants or dermal fillers.
A skin graft is a transfer of tissue, which has been completely removed from its origin and therefore relies entirely on the recipient site for its blood supply. A skin graft is used if a large area is excised and the remaining wound cannot close without transferring skin from another area.
Haemangioma, also known as Angioma, is a collection of blood vessels in the skin that forms a flat or raised red mark or lump on the skin. It is a benign lesion but can be treated with Broadband light or laser.
Hormonal pigmentation is a brownish discolouration of the skin caused by the body’s hormones or hormones in various drugs such as the contraceptive pill. Using topical creams or discontinuing the use of the offending drug can often treat it.
Hyaluronic Acid is a substance that the body produces naturally to help maintain functions like skin elasticity and joint lubrication. It is often used in skin care products as it is an excellent moisturiser or hydrator. It is also used in dermal fillers/ skin boosters as it can plump and hydrate the skin and can also be cross linked so that it will fill lines or creases on the face. The more cross linking the longer the filler will last in the skin.
Hydroquinone is a bleaching agent often used in bleaching creams to inactivate melanocytes and stop them producing pigment in the skin.
Hyperhydrosis is a condition where the body produces an excessive amount of sweat, usually in areas that have a large number of eccrine sweat glands. It can be treated with weight loss, wearing loose fitting clothing, antiperspirants, injectable muscle relaxants (to inactivate sweat glands), surgical removal of the sweat glands, sympathectomy (cutting of nerves) or oral medication.
Hyperpigmentation is an increase in pigmentation of the skin usually in a particular area.
Hypopigmentation is a decrease in pigmentation of the skin often resulting in white spots or marks on the skin.
Impetigo or school sores is a common acute superficial bacterial skin infection that is infectious. It usually appears as honey coloured crusting on the edge of a wound and is treated with gentle cleansing of the wound, antibiotic ointment and sometimes oral antibiotics.
A Lipoma is a fatty tumour or lump below the skin that may need to be surgically excised if it continues to grow or is creating a medical or cosmetic concern.
Liquid Nitrogen is used to ‘freeze’ premalignant skin lesions such as an actinic or solar keratosis or wart by being sprayed onto the lesion. The lesion is only sprayed for a few seconds but may need more than one treatment depending on the type on depth of the lesion. The spraying of the lesion stings and continues to sting for a few minutes after the treatment. The treated area is likely to blister within a few hours and often forms a scab within a few days. Lesions treated with Liquid nitrogen usually take from a week (on the face) to a few weeks to heal (on the body). This type of treatment is called Cryotherapy.
Malignant is another term for cancerous. It can be locally growing or can spread to other parts of the body via the blood or lymphatics.
Masseter muscle is the main muscle on each cheek that helps in clenching the teeth. It can cause pain on repeated clenching and also a change in the shape of the face to a much squarer look when the muscle is very strong or overused. It may be treated with muscle relaxants to relieve pain and also to change the shape of the lower face over time.
Melanocytes are pigment-producing cells in the skin.
Melanoma is a malignant (cancerous) type of skin cancer that may start as mole or freckle that looks different to others on the body. It may appear in many different shapes, colours and sizes. A Melanoma is an invasive skin cancer and can disappear from the skin once it has spread internally making it very difficult to diagnose and treat. It is a fast growing skin cancer and can be fatal if left untreated, however, when picked up early it can often be treated with surgery.
Melasma, also known as Chloasma, is a skin condition where pigmentation in the skin is induced through hormonal and environmental factors such as the sun. Some people have a hereditary tendency to develop chloasma and it can be made worse by sun exposure, certain drugs, the Oral contraceptive pill, pregnancy and other hormonal changes. Melasma is treated most commonly with topical creams and sunscreen.
A mole is a common benign skin lesion and is often pigmented (brown). Moles can be flat or raised.
Muscle Relaxants, also known as Anti-wrinkle injections are a purified muscle relaxant derived from bacteria and used to temporarily reduce or soften wrinkles in the skin. They are often used around the eyes (crows feet), between the eyebrows, on the forehead or to soften the lines at the corners of the mouth or to relax bands in the neck. Muscle Relaxants have many other therapeutic uses other than these well know cosmetic ones. Their other common uses include treatments for hyperhydrosis (excessive sweating), chronic migraine, cerebral palsy, muscle spasticity, blepharospasm and dystonia. Muscle Relaxants last approximately 3 – 4 months depending on the size and strength of the muscle and the dose injected.
Niacinamide is a form of Vitamin B3.
Nicotinamide is a form of Vitamin B3 and taken orally has been shown to reduce and treat non-melanoma skin cancer.
Oro labial folds
Oro labial folds are more commonly known as Marionette lines. These are the wrinkles or lines that run from the corner of the mouth to the jawline or chin. These usually become deeper with age, are often hereditary and can be treated effectively with dermal fillers and or muscle relaxants.
Papules are slightly raised small patches of skin that can be up to 1.5cm in diameter. They may appear on their own or in a cluster.
Perioral dermatitis is a type of dermatitis that appears as an inflammatory skin rash that is red with tiny little vesicles or blisters. It is sometimes itchy or tender and always unsightly. Its cause is often unknown but thought to be from topical creams or ointments. It responds well to stopping all topical cosmetics and using anti-inflammatory creams and/or sometimes oral antibiotics.
Pigmentation is a brown discolouration of the skin often caused by the sun but can be caused by drugs and skin treatments especially in darker skin types.
A pigmented lesion is a brown skin lesion, which may be a solar lentigo, naevus/mole, birthmark or skin cancer. ‘Pigmented’ refers to the fact that is has pigment or colour in it.
Pimples are another common name for Acne. Usually when someone refers to pimples they are talking about inflamed pustules, which are common lesions in acne and can be treated with dietary changes, topical antibiotics, skin care products, Microdermabrasion, Hydrafacial, Photonlight, Salycylic peels and the oral contraceptive pill.
Port Wine Stain
A Port Wine Stain is a type of vascular birthmark that can be a purple or dark red area of skin that is usually flat at birth but may become raised with age. It can be treated with Broadband light or laser but usually requires multiple treatments to remove.
Precancerous lesions are those that have yet to become a skin cancer but have the potential to do so, e.g. actinic or solar keratoses
Psoriasis is a common inflammatory skin disease believed to be auto-immune in origin. There are several different types of psoriasis. The most common type is plaque psoriasis, which appears with red scaly lesions and is common at the backs of elbows and front of knees.
Rosacea appears as a red rash most often affecting the face in people with a Celtic origin. It can be a hereditary condition and often does not appear until around the age of 30. It is usually aggravated by the sun and some steroid creams. Rosacea may result in background redness and visible veins along with slightly raised papules (small raised areas), pustules, scaling and swelling, burning or stinging. It is most successfully treated with Broadband Light along with various topical treatments or oral antibiotics.
Retinol is a form of vitamin A often used in anti-ageing skin care products. It should be applied to the skin at night to help age lines, hydration, acne, pigmentation and rosacea. Retinol can increase sun sensitivity so it is important to apply daily sunscreen while using this product.
Sebaceous Hyperplasia are benign yellow lumps which often start with a single dimple. They occur mainly on the face (sometimes neck or chest) and usually develop from the late thirties. They are usually enlarged oil glands and can be treated very effectively with Radiosurgical ablation, without needles or the need for local anaesthetic.
Seborrhoiec dermatitis is a red, pink or skin coloured scaly rash that affects the scalp, face and mid chest and other areas. It is often worse in winter and tends to be hereditary. It can be treated with anti dandruff or antifungal shampoos or creams or steroid creams or lotions.
Seborrhoeic Keratosis is a benign brown, skin coloured or occasionally red skin lesion, which is often associated with sun damage and a progression from a sun freckle. There is often a family history of the development of these unsightly flat or raised lesions. They can be treated effectively with radiosurgery or cryotherapy.
Skin tags are benign skin growths that tend to grow in areas of friction or rubbing. They most commonly occur on the neck, in the armpits, under the breasts and between the legs. They are more common in people who carry some excess weight, who have large breasts or those who wear lots of jewellery around their necks. They can be successfully treated with radiosurgery or cryotherapy.
‘Smokers lines’ refer to the lines around the mouth, which are found more commonly in smokers but can form in anyone who has dry or thin skin and has a family history of perioral lines. They can be treated with dermal filler, muscle relaxants, evidence based topical anti-aging products, dermal needling with fine injectable hyaluronic acid and sunscreen.
Solar Lentigo is a sun freckle, which results from sun exposure causing an increase in the production of melanin by skin cells. It can be treated with sunscreen, topical bleaching creams and serums and Broad Band light or laser.
Solar Keratosis, also known as Actinic Keratosis is a premalignant scaly red spot found most often on the face, neck or backs of hands. They are often caused by chronic sun exposure and can be treated with topical creams, photodynamic therapy or cryotherapy.
Spider Angioma, also known as a Spider naevus, is a group of blood vessels that grow from a point and then spread out in a radial fashion like a spider’s legs. It often occurs as a result of trauma, sun damage or hormonal factors. They can be treated effectively with Broadband light but may need a couple of treatments or by injection with Sclerotherapy.
Spider Naevus, also known as a Spider Angioma, is a group of blood vessels that grow from a point and then spread out in a radial fashion mimicking a spider’s legs. It often occurs as a result of trauma, sun damage or hormonal factors. They can be treated effectively with Broadband light or by injection with Sclerotherapy.
Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC)
Squamous Cell Carcinoma or SCC is a type of malignant (cancerous) skin cancer that has invaded the skin layers and is often red, raised, growing, scaly or scabby and tender. The best way to treat these is with surgery to remove the lesion completely. If treated early this method has an excellent prognosis. SCC’s are a sign that the skin has had a lot of sun damage and that the person affected will need regular skin checks.
Stretch marks, also known as striae, are a breakdown or weakening in collagen or elastin fibres in the skin leaving red and later white striations on the skin. They form during periods of rapid weight gain or growth such as in the teenage years, pregnancy, in people with excess body fat, or in those who take anabolic steroids to increase their muscle bulk. They tend to change from red to white with time. They are difficult to treat but may be helped with broadband light treatment and/or dermal needling.
Striae, also known as stretch marks, are a breakdown or weakening in collagen or elastin fibres in the skin leaving red and later white striations on the skin. They form during periods of rapid weight gain or growth such as in the teenage years, pregnancy, in people with excess body fat, or in those who take anabolic steroids to increase their muscle bulk. They tend to change from red to white with time. They are difficult to treat but may be helped with broadband light treatment and/or dermal needling.
Sutures is the medical term used to for stitches that are used to close wounds formed when skin cancers and other skin lesions are excised by a doctor. There are two types, absorbable and non-absorbable. Absorbable sutures are placed under the skin to bring a wound together. These are gradually absorbed or dissolved by the body over a few months. Non-absorbable sutures are often made of nylon or similar material and are placed on or in the skin. These need removal after 5 to 14 days depending on the location of the wound and how it is healing.
Telangiectasia are tiny blood vessels or more commonly known as broken capillaries. They can often be treated with Broadband light. Telangiectasia are often caused by sun damage, rosacea, hereditary factors, trauma or damage to the skin and certain diseases.
Tinea, also known as Athletes Foot, is a fungal infection of the skin most commonly affecting the feet or between the toes. It is a scaly red fungal infection of the skin of the foot that appears most commonly between the toes in humid conditions. Tinea can usually be treated with an antifungal cream or gel. Fungal infections can also invade the nails and oral anti -fungals may be needed to treat the infection.
Ultra violet A light is not visible to the human eye and is light with a wavelength of 320-400nm. It causes damage to the skin including skin cancer and penetrates the skin more deeply than UVB light. Good sunscreens should contain agents which protect against UVA and UVB light.
Ultraviolet light in the range of 290-320nm which causes tanning of the skin and sun damage including skin cancer. Good sunscreens should contain agents which protect against UVA and UVB light.
A vascular lesion is a patch of skin caused by an increase in concentration of blood vessels or abnormal blood vessels and is basically a red lesion that forms on the skin.
Vitiligo is a skin disorder in which pigment cells (melanocytes) are lost. It presents with well-defined milky-white patches of skin. Vitiligo leads to loss or destruction of melanocytes, which are cells that produce melanin. Melanin determines the colour of skin, hair and eyes. If melanocytes cannot form melanin or if their number decreases, skin colour becomes progressively lighter. The exact cause of vitiligo is unknown. It is thought to be a systemic autoimmune disorder.
Warts are very common non-cancerous growths of the skin caused by infection with human papillomavirus (HPV), a DNA virus. They are treated with cryotherapy or topical treatments.
Whiteheads are a type of comedome that are small skin-coloured bumps (papules) frequently found on the forehead and chin of those with acne. A whitehead is caused when the hair follicle is completely blocked.
Wrinkles, lines or furrows in the skin occur as we age. Age is the most common cause of wrinkles but there are many aspects that play a role in how, where and why we get wrinkles such as genetic factors, the way we move our muscles, decrease in natural collagen and environmental factors such as the sun or habits like smoking.
Xanthelasma is a skin condition that causes Xanthomas, which are skin lesions caused by the accumulation of fat in macrophage immune cells in the skin and more rarely in the layer of fat under the skin. Some types of xanthoma are indicative of lipid metabolism disorders (e.g. hyperlipidaemia or high blood fats), where they may be associated with increased risk of coronary artery heart disease and occasionally with pancreatitis. The most common type of Xanthomas occur as soft yellow velvety lesions on the upper and lower eyelids that start as a small bump and grow larger over a few months to years. They can be treated with radiosurgery, very strong acid such as Trichloracetic acid or with laser resurfacing.